Use the mineral identification key (see Figure 1) to identify a mineral that is nonmetallic, dark colored, harder than glass, lacks cleavage, and is green in color. You'll want to use a strong magnet. Another special property is magnetism. You begin by following step-by-step procedures and looking up a lot of things. Flashcards. Observe and measure the properties of a mineral sample, and then use a key to identify the mineral. Silky means relecting light with a silk-like sheen. Quartz, for example, may be clear, white, gray, brown, yellow, pink, red, or orange. Minerals are classified according to their chemical properties. Figure 3 shows one sample of quartz that is colorless and another quartz that is purple. Students can observe the color, luster, shape, density, hardness, streak, and reaction to acid for each mineral. Gravity. Always test for magnetism with a dark mineral—it's not hard. This Mineral Key is designed and intended for use on-line. Many minerals, such as the quartz in the Figure 3, do not have streak. Learning mineral identification is like learning to cook. Mineral Identification Lab. Is it even or mottled? Mostly mineral "goethite." Cleavage is the tendency of a mineral to break along certain planes to make smooth surfaces. There are many minerals that are white in color and may leave a white streak, but if you find out the mineral's hardness you can eliminate some of the potential minerals when trying to ID the mineral. Spell. MINERAL IDENTIFICATION FLOW CHART Geology 2 Lab 1 Mineral Identification KEY The Purpose of this lab is to practice identifying minerals by systematically observing their physical properties. Earthy to metallic luster. … Examples include iron oxides such as hematite, Fe2O3 and magnetite, Fe3O4, and pyrolusite, MgO. Stalactitic, botryoidal forms common. 8 testing tools. Then determine the texture of the rock and based on the two, identify t he rock name. Learning the basics of mineral identification is easy. Composition This rough diamond shows its octahedral cleavage. You will learn the various techniques used by geologists to identify and classify minerals. This page was last edited on 31 May 2020, at 11:22 (UTC). It is a relative, or nonlinear, scale. These have the polyatomic phosphate ion, (PO4)3–, as the anion. In translucent or transparent minerals, however, color is less reliable as an identifier because it is usually the result of a chemical impurity. Are there lines (striations) running across the minerals? It is not the same thing as color, so it crucial to distinguish luster from color. Quartz, for instance, forms six-sided crystals, showing the hexagonal symmetry of its crystal lattice. In the Mineral Identification GizmoTM, under Choose property to test, select Density. Answer the question(s) below to see how well you understand the topics covered in the previous section. For example cleaned polished pieces of chrome, steel, titanium, copper, and brass all exhibit metallic luster as do many other minerals. We will emphasize your ability to observe and test for these properties over your ability to merely name the mineral, although that is the overall goal. If more than 1 cleavage is present, and a device for measuring angles is not available, simply state whether the cleavages intersect at 90° or not 90°. Learn. http://commons.wvc.edu/rdawes/G101OCL/Basics/minerals.html, http://www.ck12.org/book/CK-12-Earth-Science-For-High-School/section/3.3/, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Talc_block.jpg, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:ChloriteUSGOV.jpg, Mineral gives off radiation that can be measured with Geiger counter, Bubbles form when mineral is exposed to a weak acid. All minerals are crystalline, but only some have the opportunity to exhibit the shapes of their crystals, their crystal forms. Is there one pure color or a range of shades? Pure quartz is clear or white, but quartz can have many other colors. You will learn the various techniques used by geologists to identify and classify minerals. There are more than 20 different terms describing habit. Is this a diamond I see before me? There are two complicating factors to remember here: (1) minerals do not always form nice crystals when they grow, and (2) a crystal face is different from a cleavage surface. The solid earth is made of rocks, which are made of minerals. Mixture of rust-like iron oxides. Match. This lab will also introduce you to the deductive process where you will utilize the results of each property test to identify the name of the mineral from an established key. Cleavage describes the way a mineral breaks. To understand rocks you need to become familiar with minerals and how they are identified. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want! Four kinds of graphs are shown in this Gizmo.Circle the kinds you have seen before. Luster ranges from metallic (highly reflective and opaque) to dull (nonreflective and opaque.) Students can observe the color, luster, shape, density, hardness, streak, and reaction to acid for each mineral. Minerals that are opaque and shiny, such as pyrite, have a metallic luster. Figure 9. Ruby is the birthstone for July and Sapphire is … Figure 2. Learn. It may take several guesses to get it right. 2019 Mineral Identification Answer Key Vocabulary: crystal, density, hardness, luster, mass, mineral, streak, volume Prior Knowledge Questions (Do these BEFORE using the Gizmo.) Make note of a mineral that is noticeably light or heavy for its size. Garnet Garnet is a group of silicate minerals with six distinct varieties. How minerals break is a key clue to their identification. They are also classified on the basis of their hardness and their cleavage or fracture. Type the name under Mineral name in the Gizmo and press Submit. Student Exploration: Graphing Skills Vocabulary: bar graph, line graph, negative relationship, pie chart, positive relationship, scale, scatter plot, variable Prior Knowledge Questions (Do these BEFORE using the Gizmo.)1. These are based on the sulfide ion, S2–. STUDY. With a Mohs scale, anyone can test an unknown mineral for its hardness. Is this a diamond I see before me? All silicate minerals are built of silicon-oxygen tetrahedra (SiO4)4– in different bonding arrangements which create different crystal lattices. Grain Size: Coarse grains are visible to the naked eye, and the minerals can usually be identified without using a magnifier. Conchoidal fracture is the way a thick piece of glass breaks with concentric, curving ridges on the broken surfaces. Mineral Identification Observe and measure the properties of a mineral sample, and then use a key to identify the mineral. Close observation and perhaps a magnifying glass are all you need for this step in the mineral identification process. Some cleave in only one direction (like mica), others in two directions (like feldspar), and some in three directions (like calcite) or more (like fluorite). In the Mineral Identification Gizmo™, under Choose property to test, select Density 1. Through trial and observation, you can determine your mineral's hardness, a key identification factor. Earthy to metallic luster. You may copy it, or any part of it, for non-commercial, personal use. A cleavage represents a direction of weakness in the crystal lattice. If you can identify several of these physical properties, you can identify the mineral. Use the app below to identify your minerals. Luster is how the surface of a mineral reflects light. STUDY. ; Hardness: This is measured with the Mohs scale and refers to the minerals contained within a rock. Be careful, though. Identification Mineral identification is a process of elimination based on determinations of physical properties. Some minerals, like quartz, have no cleavage. Other minerals have many colors: (1) Quartz- clear, pink, purple, white, brown (2) Hematite- black, grey, reddish brown, dark red Hardness is the strength with which a mineral resists its surface being scraped or punctured. Fluorite forms octahedrons (Figure 8). A mineral is a naturally formed crystal. Flashcards. Introduction: In this lab activity you will become familiar with minerals and identifying their different properties. Together, the chemical formula (the types and proportions of the chemical elements) and the crystal lattice (the geometry of how the atoms are arranged and bonded together) determine the physical properties of minerals. In the minerals tables that accompanies this section, the minerals are grouped according to their luster and color. Irregular fracture is a standard term for fractures that do not exhibit any of the qualities of the other fracture types. A metallic luster means shiny like polished metal. … There is an identification chart to help kids learn them and sort them. ; Hardness: This is measured with the Mohs scale and refers to the minerals contained within a rock. Bear in mind that most professional streak plates have a Mohs hardness of about 7. Yellow-gold pyrite has a blackish streak, another indicator that pyrite is not gold, which has a golden yellow streak. These are based on the carbonate ion, (CO3)2–. The number of cleavages is the number or directions in which the mineral cleaves. In between are a half-dozen other categories of luster that assess the degree of a mineral's transparency and reflectivity. 1. 12.001 LAB 1: MINERAL IDENTIFICATION INDEX . Identifying luster takes a little practice. To check streak, scrape the mineral across an unglazed porcelain plate (Figure 5). 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